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Attention & Substance Related Disorders
Answer the questions below based on the following case study.
An 8-year-old boy is repeatedly in trouble at school. He has been threatened with suspension after he was verbally and physically aggressive to his teacher. The school has suggested that he has a problem with his concentration and advised his parents to seek help. The school also referred him to the school child psychologist. He keeps wriggling in his seat. His mother says his concentration is fine when he is playing on his computer. What worries her is that he does not seem to think before he does things and will run out across the road without looking.
- Summarize the clinical case.
- What is the DSM 5-TR diagnosis based on the information provided in the case?
- Which pharmacological treatment would you prescribe according to the clinical guidelines? Include the rationale for this treatment.
- Which non-pharmacological treatment would you prescribe according to the clinical guidelines? Include the rationale for this treatment excluding a psychotherapeutic modality.
- Include an assessment of the treatment’s appropriateness, cost, effectiveness, safety, and potential for patient adherence to the chosen medication. Use a local pharmacy to research the cost of the medication and provide the most cost-effective choice for the patient. Use great detail when answering questions 3-5.
Expert Solution Preview
Based on the provided case study, we will analyze the clinical case of an 8-year-old boy who is facing challenges at school due to aggressive behavior, difficulty concentrating, and impulsive actions. We will evaluate the case to determine the DSM 5-TR diagnosis, recommend pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, and assess the appropriateness, cost, effectiveness, safety, and potential for patient adherence to the chosen medication.
Summarize the clinical case:
The 8-year-old boy in this case is exhibiting aggressive behavior towards his teacher, resulting in disciplinary issues at school. He also demonstrates difficulty concentrating and impulsivity, as observed by his constant movement and lack of thinking before taking actions such as running across the road without looking.
DSM 5-TR diagnosis based on the case information:
Based on the information provided, the DSM 5-TR diagnosis for this 8-year-old boy is likely Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The symptoms of aggression, difficulty concentrating, impulsivity, and lack of inhibition align with the diagnostic criteria for ADHD.
Pharmacological treatment and rationale:
According to clinical guidelines, the first-line pharmacological treatment for ADHD in children is typically stimulant medications such as methylphenidate or amphetamines. These medications work by increasing dopamine levels in the brain, which helps improve attention and self-control. Considering the symptoms exhibited by the boy in the case study, a prescription of methylphenidate would be a suitable choice.
Assessment of appropriateness, cost, effectiveness, safety, and potential for patient adherence:
Methylphenidate is a well-established and effective medication for managing ADHD symptoms in children. It has been extensively researched and shown to improve attention and reduce impulsivity and hyperactivity. However, it is essential to consider the individual patient’s characteristics and medical history before prescribing any medication.
In terms of cost, the pricing of medications may vary depending on the pharmacy and location. To determine the most cost-effective choice for the patient, it is recommended to consult a local pharmacy. Please refer to a local pharmacy to research the cost of methylphenidate in detail.
Non-pharmacological treatment and rationale:
In addition to medication, non-pharmacological interventions play a vital role in managing ADHD. One recommended non-pharmacological treatment is behavioral therapy. Behavioral therapy helps the child develop coping strategies, organizational skills, and improve social interactions. It also provides support and education to parents and teachers on modifying the child’s environment to better accommodate their needs.
Excluding psychotherapeutic modalities, another non-pharmacological treatment that can be considered is parental training. Parental training programs focus on improving parenting skills, setting clear expectations, and implementing behavioral management techniques. This training equips parents with skills to provide a structured and supportive environment for their child.
In conclusion, based on the provided case study, the recommended DSM 5-TR diagnosis is Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The pharmacological treatment of choice would be methylphenidate. This medication has been evaluated for its appropriateness, cost, effectiveness, safety, and potential for patient adherence, and further research is recommended at a local pharmacy to identify the most cost-effective option. Additionally, non-pharmacological treatments such as behavioral therapy and parental training should be included in the comprehensive management plan for this 8-year-old boy.